Care Quality Commission

The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is the independent regulator of health and adult social care in England. The CQC monitors, inspects and regulates services to make sure they meet standards of quality and safety. They publish performance ratings. 

Services that the CQC regulates include hospitals, GPs, dentists, ambulances, care homes and mental health services.

Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services

Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) are services that work with children and young people who have difficulties with their emotional or behavioural well-being. These services may be statutory, voluntary or school-based sector, such as an NHS trust, local authority, school or charitable organisation.

Child Death Overview Panel

Child Death Overview Panels (CDOP) review any child death (except for termination and stillbirths) from birth to 18 years of age. CDOPs identify factors that may prevent child deaths. They ensure ensure professionals respond quickly to unexpected child deaths, investigate the circumstances surrounding a child’s death and provide support to families. CDOPs are made up of professionals, including paediatricians, nurses, children's services and the police.

Child in need

A ‘child in need’ is defined under the Children Act 1989 as a child who is unlikely to achieve or maintain a reasonable level of health or development, or whose health and development is likely to be significantly or further impaired, without the provision of services; or a child who is disabled. 

Child Protection Conference

A child protection conference brings together and analyses all relevant information in an inter-agency setting and plans how best to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child. It is a way of analysing and managing risk and NOT providing services.

The conference should:

  1. Consider the evidence presented and making a judgement about whether the child is at continuing risk of significant harm and the likelihood of a child suffering significant harm in the future.
  2. Agree what future action is needed to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child, including whether a child protection plan is required.

Child Protection Plan

If it is determined that a child is at continuing risk of significant harm, a multi-agency Child Protection Plan can be produced to protect the child. The child protection plan sets out: how social services will check on the child's welfare; what changes are needed to reduce the risk to the child; and what support will be offered to the family.

Child sexual exploitation

Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or (b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual. Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of technology.

Core Group

A Core Group of professionals should be identified at the initial child protection conference. The group should be made up of professionals from the different agencies involved who work most closely with the child, including the lead social workers. The Core Group is responsible for implementing the child protection plan.


The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) was set up in 1986 to prosecute criminal cases investigated by the police in England and Wales.

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